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1. What marks the differences between a civil and a religious buildings?

The diferences betwen the civil buildings and the religious buildings were:
-The civil buildings had a lot of uses, the militar civil buildings were used to protect the city, this militar civil buildings were placed in high areas to watch over the city and if an army went to the city to coquer it. The civil buildings also had political uses and this buildings could act as hospitals and etc... to attends the citizents
-The religious buildings were built to pray god.

2. Make a list of the most important civil buildings and another of the most important religious buildings in the city that you can still see today

Civil buildings:

-The muslim wall.
-The Ribat.
-The christian wall.
-The street ´´Cava alta´´.
-The street´´Cava baja´´.
-The tower and the house of the Lujanes.
-The Alamillo square.
-The hospial´´Santa Catalina´´.
-The moreria´s district.
-The jew´s district of Lavapies.

Religous buildings:
-The parish of´´ San Ginés´´.
-The parish of ´´San Andrés´´.
-The parish of Santa Cruz.
-The church of ´´San Nicolás de los servitas´´.
-The church of ´´San Miguel de los Ochotes´´.
-The monastery of ´´San Martin´´.
-The church of ´´San Pedro el viejo´´.

3. What function did the civil buildings have? What were they used for?

-The muslim wall, the muslim wall of Madrid was a civil building that was built to protect the Almudaina, the alcazar, the house of the Emir and the mosque were nowdays there is situated the cathedral of Almudena.

-The christian wall, the christian wall is a civil building that was built arround the central part of Madrid to protect the city and the christians which lived there after the reconquest of Madrid.

-The Ribat, the Ribat is a fortfied area or an alcazar were the muslim soldiers lived, the Ribat was a castle and also a mosque for the muslim soldiers to pray god. The castle of the Ribat is nowdays the royal palace of Madrid.

-The street Cava alta, the street Cava alta is an street paralel to the street of Caba baja.This street was configured after the fall of the christian wall, its name comes from moat that were the militar instalations there, it was used as a way to escape and to evacate people during invasions.

-The street Cava baja,the street Cava baja is an street paralel to the of Cava alta, this street goes from the´´Puerta cerrada square´´ to the ´´Humilladero´´ square.This street was configured after the fall of the christian wall, its name comes from moat that were the militar instalations in tis street during the middle ages, it was used as a way to scape and to evacuated the people during invasions.

-The tower and the house of the´´ Lujanes´´, the house and the twer of los lujanes was the house of a lot of very important people such as Diegode Luján.Here the royal academy of moral and political sciences and so on had settled here, the house has a very beautifull gotic fachade.

-The hospital of ´´Santa Catalina´´, the hospital of ´´Santa Catalina´´was a hospital which atended to only twelve old people.

-The Alamillo square, the alamillo square was a court of justice of the muslims.

-The jew´s district of Lavapies, the jew´s district of Lavapies was a district were imigrants mainly the jews lived.

-The moreria´s district, the moreria´s district was a wall created by the muslims that goes from the Guadarrama´s range to the Somsierra´s range to watch over the christian armies which went to conquer Toledo and yhe muslims could be ready for the christian´s attacks.

4. What function did the religious buildings have? What were they used for?

-The parish of ´´San Ginés´´, the parish of ´´San Ginés´´used to pray god.

-The parish of ´´San Andrés´´, the parish of San Andrés was used to pray god.

-The parish of ´´Santa Cruz´´, the parish of ´´Santa Cruz´´ was built to conmemorate the victory of las Navas de Tolosa.

-The curch of ´´San Nicolás de los servitas´´, the church of ´´San Nicolás de los servitas´´was used to pray god.

-The church of ´´San Miquel de los Ochotes´´, the church of ´´San Miguel de los Ochotes´´ was used to pray god and confered god.

-The ´´San Martín´´ monastery, the monastery of ´´San Martín´´ was used to pay god and as a monastery.

-The church of ´´San Pedro el viejo´´, the church of ´´San Pedro el viejo´´ was used to pray god.

5. Who ordered and paid for the construction of the civil buildings? Why?

-The Ribat, the construction of the Ribat was ordered by Muhamad I , the Emir in Al-Andalus.This building was used to protect the city of Toledo by stopping the christian attacks in Madrid.

-The muslim wall, the muslim wall was used to protect the Ribat, the Almudaina, the Emir´s house and the mosque.

-The christian wall, the construction was ordered by Alfonso VI to protect the muslim wall, the city of Madrid and the new christian districts.

-The street Cava alta, the street cava alta was built bythe christians, before the christian wall there fall, it was a moat that was used as a way to scape and to evacuate people from the city in invasions.

-The street Cava baja, the street cava baja was built by the christians,before the christian wall there fall, it was a moat that was used as a way to scape and to evacuate people from the city in invasions.

-The moreria´s district, the moreria´s district was built by the muslims to watch over the christian armies and the muslims could be ready to support the christians attacks.

-The Alamillo square, the Alamillo square was built by the muslims and acted as a tribunal.

-The jew´s district of Lavapies, I could not find inormation about that, there is were the inmigrants in Madrid lived mainly jew´s

-The hospital of ´´Santa Catalina´´, its construction was ordered by Pedro Fernandez, the hospital was used to help old people.

-The house of the Lujanes, I couldn´t find information about that, it was the house of very important people. Here the royal academy of moral and political sciences and so on had settled here.

6. Who ordered and paid for the construction of the religious buildings? Why?

-The parish of ´´San Ginés´´, I couldn´t find information about that.

-The parish of ´´San Andrés´´, its construction was ordered by Lopez Salazar.

-The parish of ´´Santa Cruz´´, its construction was ordered by Alfaonso VII, to conmemorate rhe victory of Las Navas de Tolosa.

-The church of ´´Sna Nicolás de los servitas´´, I could not find information about the person who ordered the construction but the building was build by the muslims arround 1202.

-The church os ´´San Miguel de los Ochotes´´, I couldn´t find information abut that but the person who rebuilt it was the infant ´´Luis Antonio de Borón´´.

-The monastery of ´´San Martín´´, the construction of this building was ordered by Alfonso VII.

-The church of ´´San Pedro el viejo´´, the construction of this church was by Francisco Sanz. This church was probably on a mosque.


Considering the buildings that you have studied, write a small composition (10 lines) in which you explain:

1. In what ways society organized in Madrid during the Middle Ages? 2. What did the people who built the buildings hope to show with their structures? 3.What role did religion play during the Middle Ages? Was it a private and personal matter? Or, was it related to social status? Give your personal opinion, but support it using the buildings and exampled what you have studied to defend your ideas.


Madrid during the middle ages was divided into three states:
1. The nobles was a privileged state,so they did not pay taxes, they had political power and they could not be tortured. They were knights and their family, the rich nobles had their manor and their army of knights and their duty was to protect the people in exchange of money and work.
2. The clergy were the monks the priests etc... they were privileged state so they did not pay taxes, they had political power and they could not be tortured. Their duty was to pray for the spiritual salvation o the population.
3. The peasants,they were not privileged state, so they had to pay taxes, they hadn´t political power and they could be tortured, there were two types of peasant:
-Freemen, they were peasants that could farm the lands of the manor and they could leave the manor and lso they could get married with the woman they wanted.
-Serfs, most of the peasans were serfs.They could not leave the manor, they could not own property lands and they could not marry without the lords permition.

The buildings were ordered to built by governors,kings, nobles, etc... In general the people which were very powerfull and also were very rich. During the middle ages there were a big difference betwen the people which had no privileges and the people which had privileges and it is that the people with privileges had a lot of money and the people which did not had proivilegeswere vey poor escept the bourgeoisie during the modern age.So the people which had privilegesare going to create staues, monuments for the people to remember them, and also are going to pay for special buildings were they lived and puted a shielf of their family over the door of their hauses

During the midlle ages the church was very powerfull and arround the 97 percent of the population in the christian kingdoms belived in god Jesus and the church didn´t let the people to study filosofy or etc...because if the people were inteligent , the church lost power so the church had the books from the ancient greek such as the knowledge about that the Earth was an esfere ad so on, and the church told that the power from god is over all the humans and the people wich had a high knowledge such as Galileo Galilei or did not belive in god were a danger for the catholic religion, so they were perscuted and killed by the tribunal of inquisition